In the nineteenth century, Russia, which experienced a spectacular population explosion, began the conquest of Central Asia, populated by ethnic Turk (Tajiks, Turkmen, Uzbekhs, etc.). This Slavic advance towards the center of the Asian landmass responds to a desire to permanently prevent the Turkish-Mongol invasions that Russia suffered during our Middle Ages. But progressing along the Aral-Pamir axis, the Russian push will stop against the British possessions that block the road to the Indian Ocean. Indeed, Russia has been caressing for centuries the desire to own port facilities overlooking a “warm sea”. The two imperialisms will meet and clash (often by local ethnic groups) in Afghanistan. The scenario was partially repeated in 1978, when the American thalassocracy, supporting Pakistan and the anti-Soviet rebels of Afghanistan, opposed the USSR, supporting its strategy on certain Afghan ethnic groups and on the government. pro-Soviet official.
With these events spanning a few decades (from 1830 to 1880), Russia and England are becoming more aware of the region’s geopolitical issues. The British geopolitician Homer LEA realizes that the Indies really form the keystone of the British colonial system. He wrote: “Apart from a direct attack and a military conquest of the British Isles themselves, the loss of the Indies would be the most lethal blow to the British Empire.” Later, he will confirm this judgment and give it even more emphasis, stating that the Empire is an indivisible whole, the British Isles are just a few islands among others and the largest territorial mass, the the center of the colonial system is India. As a result, the loss of the Indies would be more serious than the loss of the British Isles.
The Indies allowed the British Empire to control the Russia that dominated (and still dominates) the Heartland – Siberian Middle-earth – and to control the Heartsea, the Middle Ocean which is the Indian Ocean located between the Atlantic and the Pacific. The control of the “Middle Ocean” makes it possible to contain the Russian continental power within the Siberian limits given to it by history. Russia, for its part, realizes that if India falls to it by conquest, by alliance or by chance, it will control Middle-earth and the Middle Ocean, and that it will become, ipso facto, the first power of the planet.
The geographical configuration of Afghanistan has allowed this country to escape outright annexation to one of the two Empires. In addition, Russians and English had an interest in a buffer state between their possessions. In Persia, local nationalism will emerge by deploying a double designation of enemies: the Russian who threatens the northern frontier and the Englishman who threatens the South with his fleet and the Southeast with his Indian army. It is no coincidence that Persian nationalism has always been a Germanophile and if today, Khomeini’s Muslim fundamentalism is also hostile to the Soviets and Americans who have taken over from the British.