The Pax Britannica

Arrived in the Indian Ocean in the middle of the seventeenth century, the English will gradually consolidate their positions and eventually make India the keystone of their colonial system, the most advanced that history has known. With the capitulation of France, which abandoned its Indian positions to England in 1763 (apart from a few comptoirs like Pondicherry), the British Crown could successively set foot in Singapore, Malacca, Aden, South Africa. In 1857, India came under direct colonial control and in 1877, Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India. England then continues its progression in East Africa (Kenya, Zanzibar).

France, in 1763, made a fatal error: it sacrificed its global potentialities in favor of a desire for hegemony in Germany. It neglected two assets: the one offered by the seafaring people of its Atlantic coasts, Bretons, Normans and Rochellois. And the one offered by its wooded hinterland (raw materials for building fleets) and its peasant masses (human reserves), then the most numerous in Europe.

It will therefore be the English who will occupy the periphery of the Indian Ocean. This occupation will imply the protection of the status quo against new enemies: the Russians, the Germans, the Italians and the Japanese.